BEDD uses spoors count based on Funston et al. (2010) to determine the population trends of lion, leopard, and spotted hyena in space and time. Tracks are repeatedly counted on 25 km transects; five transects in each NP and adjacent Hunting Zone twice per month from January 2022 till May 2023. These transects are selected based on seasonal accessibility, substrate suitability, representativeness, and position within the Complex. All spoor are counted, except those found within 500 m of another spoor of the same species that is not ostensibly a different individual (Funston et al. 2010); information registere include species, location, date/time stamp, substrate type, and spoor age and at least two pictures of each spoor in a template/Cybertracker.